Resistivity Contrast and the Phenomenon of Geophysical Anomaly in Groundwater Exploration in A Crystalline Basement Environment, Southwestern Nigeria
AbstractIn absence of magnetic, gravity, electromagnetic and seismic refraction tools, Lateral Resistivity Profiling (LRP) has been engaged as major tool in the study of deep-seated geological structures for the evaluation of structural trend and settings for groundwater exploration in a complex geologic environment of Southwestern Nigeria. Twenty LRP using wenner configuration was used to delineate zones of resistivity contrast anomaly (weak zone) diagnostic of fracture, fault, cracks, joints and highly weathered geologic materials. Thirty-three Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using schlumberger configurations was carried out on the zones of resistivity contrast (weak zones) to delineate geoelectric sequence and layer stratification. The results from the VES were used to generate geoelectric section, geoelectric maps and also to determine the second order parameters. Groundwater potential map was also generated from the integration of geoelectric parameters using Multi-Criteria Evaluation Techniques (MCDA). The model was classified into low, moderate, high and very high groundwater potential zones and all identified points was drilled and the boreholes was very productive, which were used to validate the accuracy of the groundwater potential map. M-formula was used to determine the groundwater yield index value to model the groundwater yield map. All the result obtained has been found to be very relevant in groundwater evaluation of the study area and thereby justifying the relevance of LRP as a major tool in groundwater exploration before carrying out VES.
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