Cloudbursts Over Indian Sub-continent of Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Traditional Habitation Input from Bansoli, District-Chamoli, India
Although, the cloudburst occurs in the monsoon season but it may also happen in the premonsoon showers in Himalayan mountainous region of Uttarakhand sate. Every year, this causes massive loss of life, property, infrastructure, agricultural lands and other facilities. The earlier disasters show that the growing outbreak of rains and its associated flash floods, debris flows and landslides are important reasons for damages and destructions. It is not yet possible to find out, when and in which area the same events will be occurred, particularly in Uttarakhand region. Change in climate due to Global warming is the major concern for these extreme events. However, it's a topic of detailed research to assess impact of climate change on extreme rainfall pattern. Being a geo-dynamically active young Himalayan belt, here the rocks are highly faulted, folded, jointed and fractured resulting in an excessive amount of mass movements and environmental degradations. So, inherent geology, deep regolith cover and high relief difference are more common in the area and the same increases the vulnerability. In addition, human interventions in terms of construction of houses in instable mountainous slopes, over deep regolith and concentration of the streams/rivulets is enlarged the devastating potential of the disaster. It is very important to know the risk of the area to reduce the impact of the disaster. For this, it is important to know the history of previous disastrous events and take a lesson from them and plan ahead. Keeping all these things in mind, all known cloudburst events and their adverse impacts upon inhabitants of the area has been attempted to be compiled in the present study. Additionally, better land use practices also described in the same by an example. This will be help in further research to prevention, mitigation and disaster risk reduction in near future.
Anbalagan, R., 1996. Hazards of erosion and sedimentation due to cloudburst in small catchments- a case study from Kumaun Himalaya, India. Echohydrology of High Mountain, International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Nepal. 313.
Asthana, A.K.L., Sah, M.P., 2007. Landslides and Cloudbursts in the Mandakini Basin of Garhwal Himalaya. Himalayan Geology 28 (2), 59-67.
Ali, K., Bajracharyar, R.M., Raut, N., 2017. Advances and Challenges in Flash Flood Risk Assessment: A Review. Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters 7 (2), 1-6.
Asthana, A.K.L., Asthana, H., 2014. Geomorphic Control of Cloud Bursts and Flash Floods in Himalaya with Special Reference to Kedarnath Area of Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Advancement in Earth and Environmental Sciences 2 (1), 16-24.
Census of India, 2011. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uttarakhand. (Assessed on 6 June, 2020).
Chauhan, R., Mehrotra, R., 2018. Macro-scale (1:50,000) Landslide susceptibility mapping in parts of toposheet nos. 53O/1, 53O/5, Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Chamoli districts, Uttarakhand. Geological Survey of India, 70.
Chevuturi, A., Dimri, A.P., 2016. Investigation of Uttarakhand (India) disaster-2013 using weather research and forecasting model. Natural Hazards 82 (3), 1703-1726.
Chaudhuri, C., Tripathi, S., Srivastava, R., Misra, A., 2015. Observation and numerical analysis-based dynamics of
Uttarkashi cloudburst. Annales Geophysicae 33, 671-686.
Chevuturi, A., Dimri, A.P., Das, S., Kumar, A., Niyogi, D., 2015. Numerical simulation of an intense precipitation event over Rudraprayag in the central Himalayas during 13-14 September,
2012. Journal of Earth System Science 124 (7), 1545-1561.
Chaudhri, A.R., Sing, M., 2012. Clay minerals as climate change indicators- A case study. American Journal of Climate Change 1, 231-239.
Chalise, S.R., Kahnal, N.R., 2001. Rainfall and Related Natural Disasters in Nepal. In: Tianchi, Li, Chalise, S.R. and Upreti, B.N. (eds.), Landslide Hazard Mitigation in the Hindu Kush- Himalaya. ICIMOD, Nepal, 63-70.
Dai, F.C., Lee, C.F., 2002. Landslide characteristics and slope instability modeling using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology (Elsevier) 42(3), 213-228.
Dai, F.C., Lee, C.F., 2002. Landslide characteristics and slope instability modeling using GIS, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Geomorphology 42(3), 213-228.
Dai, F. C., Lee, C. F., Wang, S.J., 1999. Analysis of rainstorminduced slide-debris flows on natural terrain of Lantau Island, Hong Kong. Engineering Geology 51, 279-290.
Das, P.K., 2013. The Himalayan Tsunami-Cloudburst, Flash flood and death toll: A geographical postmortem. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT). 7 (2), 33-45.
Das, P.K., 2015. Global warming, glacial lakes and cloud burst events in Garhwal-Kumaon Himalaya: A hypothetical analysis. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 5 (4), 697-708.
Das, S., Ashrit, R., Moncrieff, M.W., 2006. Simulation of a Himalayan cloudburst event. Journal of Earth System Science 115 (3), 299-313.
Deoja, B., Dhital, M., Thapa, B., Wagner, A., 1991. Mountain Risk Engineering Handbook, Part I&II. ICIMOD, Kathmandu, Nepal. 875.
Dimri, A.P., Chevuturi, A., Niyogi, D., Thayyen, R.J., Ray, K., Tripathi, S.N., Pandey, A.K., Mohanty, U.C., 2017.
Cloudbursts in Indian Himalayas: A review. Earth-Science Reviews 168, 1- 13.
DMMC, 2011. Slope instability and geo-environmental issues of the area around Nainital. Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre, Dehradun, 92.
DMMC, 2014. Geological investigations of Rudraprayag district with especial reference to slope instability. Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre, Department of Disaster Management, Government of Uttarakhand, 106.
DMMC, 2012a. Investigations in the areas around Okhimath in Rudraprayag district on the aftermath of landslide incidences of September, 2012. Unpublished report of Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre, Department of Disaster Management, Government of Uttarakhand, 37.
DMMC, 2012b. Investigations in the Asi Ganga valley on the aftermath of flash flood/landslide incidences in August, 2012. Unpublished report of Disaster Mitigation and Management Centre, Department of Disaster Management, Government of Uttarakhand, 45.
Dunn, J. A., Auden, J. B., Ghosh, A. M. N., Roy, S. C., 1939. The Bihar-Nepal earthquake of 1934. Memoirs Geological Survey of India 73, 391.
Gupta, V., Dobhal, D.P., Vaideswaran, S.C., 2013. August 2012 cloudburst and subsequent flash flood in the Asi Ganga, a tributary of the Bhagirathi river, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Current Science 105 (2), 249-253.
Li, H., Zhang, X., Li, Q., Qin, T., Lei, X., 2018. Flash flood disasters analysis and evaluation: a case study of Yiyang County in China. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 128, 1-9.
Heim, A., Gansser, A., 1939. Central Himalaya: Societe Helvetique des Sciences Naturelles 73, 1-245.
IMD, 2013. A preliminary report on heavy rainfall over Uttarakhand during 16-18 June 2013. Government of India,
Ministry of Earth Science, Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi, July.
IS 1983, 2002. Indian Standard (IS):1893, Part 1, Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
Joshi, V., Kumar, K., 2006. Extreme rainfall events and associated natural hazards in Alaknanda Valley, Indian Himalayan Region. Journal of Mountain Science 3(3), 228-236.
Joshi, V., Maikhuri, R.K., 1997. Cloudburst: A natural Calamity-A case study from Garhwal Himalaya, U.P. Journal of Indian Builidngs Congress IV (1), 208-219.
Khanduri, S., 2019. Natural hazards in the townships of Nainital, Uttarakhand in Inida. International Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences and Technology 3 (12), 42-49.
Khanduri, S., Sajwan, K.S., 2019. Flash floods in Himalaya with especial reference to Mori tehsil of Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Current Research in Multidisciplinary 4 (9), 10-18.
Khanduri, S., 2018a. Hydro-meteorological disaster in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand Himalaya, causes and implications. Scholar’s press, Germany, 45.
Khanduri, S., 2018b. Landslide Distribution and Damages during 2013 Deluge: A Case Study of Chamoli District, Uttarakhand. Journal of Geography and Natural Disasters 8 (2), 1-10.
Khanduri, S., Sajwan, K.S., Rawat, A., 2018a. Disastrous Events on Kelash-Mansarowar Route, Dharchula Tehsil in Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand in India. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change 9 (4), 1-4.
Khanduri, S., Sajwan, K.S., Rawat, A., Dhyani, C., Kapoor, S., 2018b. Disaster in Rudraprayag District of Uttarakhand Himalaya: A Special Emphasis on Geomorphic Changes and Slope Instability. Journal of Geography and Natural Disasters 8 (1), 1-9.
Khanduri, S., 2017. Disaster Hit Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand Himalaya: Causes and Implications. Journal of
Geography and Natural Disasters 7 (3), 2-5.
Kumar, V.V.G., Jain, K., 2012. Monitoring and Analysis of Cloudburst Region using Geomantic Techniques. 13th Esri India User Conference 2012, 1-8.
Lewin, J., Warburton, J., 1994. Debris flows in an Alpine Environment. Geography 79 (343), 98-107.
Middlemiss, C. S., 1910. Kangara earthquake of 4th April 1905. Memoirs Geological Survey of India 39, 1-409.
NIDM, 2015. Uttarakhand Disaster 2013, National Institute of Disaster Management (Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India), New Delhi, India.
NIDM, 2014. Uttarakhand disaster-2013: lessons learnt and way ahead.
Naithani, A. K., 2001. The August, 1998 Okhimath tragedy in Rudraprayag district of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, Inida. Gaia N° 16, LISBOA/KUSBON, JUNHO/JUNE 2001, 145-156.
Naithani, A.K., Rawat, G.S., Nawani, P.C., 2011. Investigation of Landslide Events on 12th July 2007 due to Cloudburst in Chamoli District, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering 4, 777-786.
Naithani, A.K., Kumar, D., Prasad, C., 2002a. The catastrophic landslide of 16 July 2001 in Phata Byung area, Rudraprayag District, Garhwal Himalaya, India. Current Science 82 (25), 921-923.
Naithani, A.K., Joshi, V., Prasad, C., 2002b. Investigation on the impact of cloudburst in Tehri District, Uttaranchal- 31 August, 2001. Journal of the Geological Society of India 60, 573-575.
Nand, N., Prasad, C., 1972. Alaknanda tragedy - A Geomorphological appraisal. Journal of Natural Geography, Varanasi 18, 206-212.
Nandargi, S., Dhar, O.N., 2011. Extreme rainfall events over the Himalayas between 1871 and 2007. Hydrological Sciences Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques 56 (6), 930-945.
Pal, D., Sharma, B.P., Lal, A.K., 1998. Degradation of land resources in MBT and MCT zones as a results of NNE-SSW trending linear Aravalli basement in Garhwal Himalaya. Pub. IN: Saxena, P.B. (ed) Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, 279-300.
Paul, S.K., Bartarya, S.K., Rautela, P., MahajanA.K., 2000. Catastrophic mass movement of 1998 monsoons at Malpa in Kali Valley, Kumaun Himalaya_India. Geomorphology 35, 169-180.
Pierson, T.C., 1980. Piezometric response to rainstorms in forested hillslope drainage depressions. Journal of Hydrology of New Zealand 19, 1-10.
Pradhan, B., Dikshit, A., Sarkar, R., Segoni, S., Alamri, A.M., 2020. Rainfall Induced Landslide Studies in Indian Himalayan Region: A Critical Review. Applied Sciences 10, 1-24.
Prakesh, S., 2015a. A study on flash floods and landslides Disaster on 3rd August, 2012 along Bhagirathi valley in Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand. National Institute of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi, 230.
Prakesh, S., 2015b. Some Socio-Economically Significant Landslides in Uttarakhand Himalaya: Events, Consequences and Lessons Learnt (200-211). Rajib Shaw and Hari Krishna Nibanupudi (eds.), Mountain Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction, Disaster Risk Reduction, Springer Japan. 271.
Rajendran, C. P., Rajendran, K., Sanwal, J., Sandiford, M., 2013. Archaeological and Historical Database on theMedieval Earthquakes of the Central Himalaya: Ambiguities and Inferences. Seismological Research Letters 84(6), 1098-1108.
Rautela, P., 2018. Lessons learnt from June 16/17, 2013 disaster of Uttarakhand, India. Rajib Shaw, Koichi Shiwaku and Takako Izumi (eds.), Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction in India, Potentials and Challenges, 273-300.
Rautela, P., Pande, R.K., 2005. Traditional inputs in disaster management: the case of Amparav, North India. International Journal of Environmental Studies 62 (5), 505-515.
Rautela, P., Joshi, G.C., Bhaisora, B., 2011. Seismic vulnerability of the health infrastructure in the Himalayan township of Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment 2 (3), 200-209.
Sah, M.P., Mazari, R.K., 2007. An overview of the Geoenvironmental status of the Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Mountain Science 4, 3-23.
Sah, M.P., Asthana, A.K.L., Rawat, B.S., 2003. Cloud burst of August 10, 2002 and related landslides and debris flows around Budha Kedar (Thati Kathur) in Balganga valley, district Tehri. Himalayan Geology 24 (2), 87-101.
Sajwan, K.S., Khanduri, S., 2018. Investigation of Hydrometrological Disaster Affected Malpa and Mangti Area,
Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Geography and Natural Disasters 8 (2), 1-7.
Sarkar, S., Kanungo, D.P., 2010. Landslide disaster on Berinag–Munsiyari Road, Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand. Current Science 98 (7), 900-902.
Sati, V.P., 2007. Environmental impacts of debris flows - A case study of the two debris-flow zones in the Garhwal Himalaya. Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment, Chen & Major, eds., ISBN 978 90 5966 059 5, 715-723.
Sati, S. P., Sundriyal, Y.P., Rana, N., Dangwal, S., 2011. Recent landslides in Uttarakhand: nature’s fury or human folly. Current Science 100 (11), 1617-1620.
Shrestha, P., Dimri, A.P., Schomburg, A., Simmer, C., 2015. Improved understanding of an extreme rainfall event at the Himalayan foothills-a case study using COSMO. Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography 67, 26031.
Siddiqui, K.M., 2002. Global change impact assessment in the Himalayan mountain region of Pakistan- a case study of Siran valley. In Global change impact assessment in the Himalayan Mountain Regions Recourse Management and Sustainable Development. Country study report for year 2002 (APN Project).
Singh, G.S., Sen, K.K., 1996. Causes and Consequences of Cloudbursts at Kullu district in the Himanchal Himalaya.
Himalaya Paryavaran 4 (1), 13-16.
Smith, L.R.B., 1843. Memoir on India earthquakes. Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal 12, 1029-1059.
Srivastava, P., Ray, Y., Phartiyal, B., Sundriyal, Y.P., 2016. Rivers in the Himalaya: Responses to Neotectonics and Past Climate. Procc. Indian National Science Academy 82(3), 763-772.
Takata, K., Saitoa, K., Yasunari, T., 2008. Changes in the Asian monsoon climate during 1700-1850 induced by preindustrial cultivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 9586-9589.
Valdiya, K.S., 1980. Geology of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya: Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun, India.
Valdiya, K.S., 1989. Trans-Himadri intracrustal fault and basement upwarps south of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 153-168.
Valdiya, K.S., Goel, O.P., 1983. Lithological subdivision and petrology of the great Himalayan Vaikrita Group in Kumaon Himalaya, India. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences - Earth and Planetary Sciences 92, 141-163.
Zimmermann, M., Haeberli, W., 1992. Climatic change and debris flow activity in high mountain areas–a case study in the Swiss Alps. Catena Supplement 22: 59-72.
Copyright (c) 2020 Sushil Khanduri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors keep the copyrights of the published materials with them, but the authors are aggee to give an exclusive license to the publisher that transfers all publishing and commercial exploitation rights to the publisher. The puslisher then shares the content published in this journal under CC BY-NC-ND license.