Factors of Climate Migration of Poor Slum Dwellers in Dhaka City

  • Karisma Amjad
Keywords: Climate change, Climate migrants, Slum dwellers, Factors, Dhaka City


Bangladesh is in a vulnerable situation for the climate change. This study examines the factors of the climate migration of urban poor slum dwellers in Bangladesh. The study conducted at two slums in Dhaka city with purposive sample survey, KII and in depth qualitative interview of selected climate migrant of slum dwellers with the purposive sample size of 150. This study identified river erosion, cyclone, flooding, drought and no agricultural work available during the off-season (Monga period) main environmental reasons of migration. It is found, inherent factors behind the climate migration is mainly driven by economic and social factors i.e., unemployment, poverty, political, religious and cultural conflicts etc. In the migration process the push factors are more active then pull factors. Poverty and unemployment pushed the poor villagers who were affected with any kind of climate change to move their residence to the cities. After the migration majority of the migrants straggle to survive and try to improve their livelihoods in the city slum. Even though poor migrants have contributed a lot in social and economic development, they still have to stay excluded from proper nutrition, housing, education and sanitation. Planned migration, availability of work and social care services are suggested through this paper to reduce of further poverty of urban poor.


Ahmed, A.I.M.U., 2005. Weber’s Perspective on the City and Culture, Contemporary Urbanization and Bangladesh. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology 1 (1), 1-13.

Akter, T., 2009. Migration and living conditions in urban slums: implications for food Security. Retrieved August 29, 2019 from unnayan.org/reports/Migration.and.living.conditions.in.urban.slums.pdf.

Ayers, J., Huq, S., Wright, H., Faisal, A.M., Hussain, S.T., 2014. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development in Bangladesh. Climate and Development6 (4), 293-305.

Baten, A., Ahammad, M., Azad, T.M.A., 2013. Health status and its implications for the livelihoods of slum dwellers in Dhaka city, Working Paper No: 11. Displacement Solutions, 2010. Association for Climate Refugees, Climate “Refugees” in Bangladesh – Answering the Basics: The Where, How, Who and How Many? Retrieved December 13, 2017 from http://displacementsolutions.org/?p=547.

Displacement Solutions, 2012. Climate Displacement in Bangladesh, The Need for Urgent Housing, Land and Property (HLP) Rights Solutions. Retrieved December 13, 2017 from https://www.scribd.com/.../DS-Climate-Displacement-in-Bangladesh-Report-May-2012.

ESCAP, 2007. ESCAP population data sheet 2006. Population and rural and urban development division, Bangkok.

Massey, D., 1999. Why does Immigration occur? A Theoretical Synthetis. In: Hirschmann, C., et al. (Eds.): The Handbook of International Migration: the American Experience. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 34-52.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, 2018. Climate Change Profile: Bangladesh.

Sarwar, S., Rahman, S., 2004. Urbanization, Rural to Urban Migration and the Street Children in Hazardous Condition: A Case Study in Rajshahi City. Association for Community Development –ACD: Rajshshi. Retrieved December 11, 2019 from http://www.lawrights.asn.au/docs/sarwar2005.pdf.

Schmid, S., 2011. Migration Potential from North Africa to Europe. DGD-Arbeitskreis Weltbevölkerung. Retrieved December 11, 2019 from http://weltbevoelkerung.org/PDFs/Schmid_Migration_potential.pdf.

Siddiqui, T., 2011. Climate change induced displacement: Migration as an adaptation strategy. Retrieved December 11, 2017 from http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-210113.

Thomas, T.S., Mainuddin, K., Chiang, C., Rahman, A., Haque, A., Islam, N., Quasem, S., Sun, Y., 2013. Agriculture and Adaptation in Bangladesh: Current and Projected Impacts of Climate Change. IFPRI. Discussion Paper 01281. Retrieved August 29, 2019 from http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01281.pdf.

The Guardian, 2015. Dhaka: the city where climate refugees are already a reality. Retrieved December 19, 2017 from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/dec/01/dhaka-city-climate-refugees-reality.

tutor2u, 2020. https://www.tutor2u.net/geography/reference/the-push-pull-factors-of-migration.

EJF, 2020. Retrieved December 11, 2019 from https://ejfoundation.org/reports/climate-displacement-in-bangladesh

Farhana, K.M., Rahman, S.R., Rahman, M., 2012. Factors of Migration in Urban Bangladesh: An Empirical Study of Poor Migrants in Rajshahi City. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology 9 (1), 101-117.